Monday, February 12, 2007

Cargo Details

Alumina
CARGO ALUMİNA
DESCRİPTİON Alumina is a fine, white odourless powder with little or no moisture content that is used in the production of aluminium, the preparation of paint and dyeing calico print.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fine powder N/A 0.92 - 1.28

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS As for sugar: no residual cargo, including dust, with particular attention to coal, iron ore, sulphur and phosphates. All loose rust and scale are to be removed. Holds must be completely dry before surveyor will issue certificate.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be loaded in light rain with hatch lids on non-working holds closed.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo.
PRECAUTİONS Alumina dust is very abrasive and 'gets into everything'. Accordingly, take precautions to cover and protect machinery accommodation and bilge wells from it. If wet, alumina is unpumpable; good cover on bilge wells to prevent ingress.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Maintain protection of accommodation and machinery against dust.
CLEAN UP After discharge there must be a thorough double sweep and cleaning of high frames and shedders. After hose down, use portable pump to clear water from holds - not the bilge pump.

Ammonium Sulphate
CARGO AMMONİUM SULPHATE
DESCRİPTİON Fine granulated, off white or brown crystals. There may be a slight ammonia like odour. Sulphate of ammonia is a chemical fertilizer.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
2mm - 4mm 360(1) 1.0 - 1.15

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Must be clean and absolutely dry.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Because it will cake and become corrosive when wet, ammonium sulphate must not be worked in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE When carried in bulk a danger of heavy corrosion to steelwork exists if moisture is introduced by condensation, cargo sweating or hatch covers leaking. Close attention must be given to hatch sealing. Do not ventilate so as to keep moist air to ammonium.
DİSCHARGE Normal discharge practices. If cargo has hardened trimming may be necessary to avoid formation of overhanging cargo faces.
CLEAN UP Holds must be thoroughly cleaned and washed out after discharge to remove all traces of the cargo. This cargo is soluble in water.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.
Bauxite
CARGO BAUXİTE
DESCRİPTİON A brownish, yellow claylike and earthy mineral that is a principal ore for aluminium production.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
70/90% Lumps
10/30% Powder N/A 0.72 - 0.84

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Clean and dry with no cargo residue. Protect bilge wells against ingress.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be worked in light rain with non working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special Precautions.
CARRİAGE No special Precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean.


Bentonite (Extremely Hydroscopic)
CARGO BENTONİTE (EXTREMELY HYGROSCOPİC)
DESCRİPTİON Bentonite is a clay, light fawn in colour. It is sometimes processed for carriage by extrusion into pencil-like shapes. Subsequent handling breaks the 'pencils' up into varying lengths.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Dust to lumps also pellets 300 to 400 (1) 1.2

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Clean and dry with no residue of previous cargo.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Must be kept dry. Do not work in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS A property of Bentonite is that it absorbs moisture and becomes very slippery, making decks dangerous to walk on. Spread sand on working areas. Cargo can be very dusty. Persons involved in loading should wear protective clothing, goggles, and facemasks. Bentonite swells greatly on absorption of water.
CARRİAGE Seal Hatches. No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Residues will stick to bulkheads and should be scraped off. When washing down make men aware of the slippery surfaces.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Cement
CARGO CEMENT
DESCRİPTİON Cement is a finely ground powder which becomes almost fluid in nature when aerated or significantly disturbed thereby creating a very minimal angle of repose. After loading is completed de-aeration occurs almost immediately and the product settles into a stable mass. Cement dust can be a major concern during loading and discharge if the vessel is not specially designed as a cement carrier or shore equipment is not fitted with special dust control equipment.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fine Powder N/A 0.78 - 0.83

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds should be double swept clean and totally free of any residues of previous cargoes. In the case of previous cargoes being carbohydrate or starchy particularly sugar - holds must be meticulously washed and dried. The smallest amount of sugar can render the whole cargo useless.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Do not load in rain if not being loaded in a totally enclosed system. Keep non working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Consideration should be given as to whether cement has had sufficient time to settle before sailing and guidance may be sought through the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, Appendix C.
PRECAUTİONS Ensure hold bilge wells are dry, taped up and made sift proof. Protect machinery, accommodation, and equipment from dust ingress. Persons involved in loading should wear protective clothing, goggles and dust filter masks, if not a closed circuit loading.
CARRİAGE Hatches must be sealed. Shut all vents and access ways. DO NOT pump bilges in cement holds unless absolutely necessary.
DİSCHARGE If using grabs and not discharging in a closed circuit system ensure the vessel is again protected against dust ingress and personnel are wearing the appropriate protective clothing, goggles, and face masks.
CLEAN UP Before washdown begins, holds, decks, houses, machinery etc. should be thoroughly swept and all residues removed. Pay particular attention to bilge wells and framework in holds. Final clean up of equipment and in particular portholes can be undertaken easily by wiping down with a mild acid, such as vinegar, and then hosing down.


Cement Clinkers
CARGO CEMENT CLİNKERS
DESCRİPTİON Cement is formed by burning limestone with clay. This burning produces rough cinderlumps that are later crushed to a fine powder to produce cement. The rough cinder lumps are called clinker and are shipped in this form to avoid the difficulties of carrying cement powder.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Omm - 40mm N/A 0.61 - 0.84

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds should be double swept clean and totally free of any residues of previous cargoes. In the case of previous cargoes being carbohydrate or starchy particularly sugar-holds must be meticulously washed and dried. The smallest amount of sugar can render the hold cargo useless.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Do not load in rain. Keep non working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo spacess.
PRECAUTİONS Make sure bilge wells are dry; cover with burlap. Protect machinery, accommodation, and equipment from dust ingress. Persons involved in loading should wear protective clothing, goggles and dust filter masks.
CARRİAGE Hatches should be sealed. Shut all vents and access ways. DO NOT pump bilge wells in cement holds unless absolutely necessary.
DİSCHARGE Make sure that machinery, accommodation and equipment is again protected from dust. Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Before washdown begins, holds, decks, houses etc. should be thoroughly swept and all residue removed. Final clean up of equipment and in particular portholes can be under-taken easily by wiping down with a mild acid, such as vinegar, and then hosing down.


Clay
CARGO CLAY
DESCRİPTİON Clay is usually light to dark grey and comprises 10% soft lumps and 90% soft grains. The material is usually moist but not wet to the touch. Moisture is up to 18%.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
0mm - 150mm N/A 0.66 - 1.34

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds should be clean, dry, and free of contamination. Iron ore, rust and coal residues should be strictly guarded against.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Do not load in rain. Keep non working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Keep dry. The moisture content should be kept as low as possible otherwise the material will go 'gluggy' and thus extremely difficult to handle.
CARRİAGE Seal hatches to keep cargo dry. No other special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Scrape and sweep out hold carefully: clean bilge wells before washing out.


Coal
(See also Appendix II)
CARGO COAL (SEE ALSO APPENDİX II)

DESCRİPTİON Coal is a natural, solid, combustible material consisting of amorphous carbon and hydrocarbons.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
mainly up to 50mm N/A 0.79 - 1.53

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix B. Material hazardous in Bulk.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds should be swept clean and clear of residues of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. Coal can be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Make sure bilge wells are dean and covered with burlap. Refer to Appendix II(b) and the general requirements for carrying hazardous bulk cargoes contained in the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.
CARRİAGE Ensure the requirements of the IMO Code of Safe Practice of Solid Bulk Cargoes are complied with.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Coke
CARGO COKE
DESCRİPTİON Coke is used in steelmaking as a heat energy source in blast furnaces. The carbon it contains helps with the reductive process that turns iron oxide into metallic iron.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines up to 120mm N/A 1.25 - 2.93

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds should be swept clean and dear of residues of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. Coke can be loaded in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Coke is very light and will cubically fill holds. Cover bilge wells with burlap. Coke will float and clog bilge lines, strums and scuppers if precautions are not taken.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and wash clean. Watch for blocked bilge wells and scuppers.


Diammonium Phosphate (D.A.P.)
CARGO DİAMMONİUM PHOSPHATE (D.A.P.)
DESCRİPTİON DAP is a processed fertiliser designed for use on grain and with other mixtures on cane and horticulture. It is odourless and comes in the form of grey granules. Depending on source it can be dusty.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
2mm - 4mm 350 - 400 (1) 1.10 - 1.20

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Clean and dry with no residues of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS DAP is hygroscopic and will harden and cake in high humidity. Do not work this cargo in rain and keep non-working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE When carried in bulk, DAP in humid conditions will set hard in the hold. Condensation, cargo sweating, and leaking hatch covers must be carefully watched. Pay close attention to hatch sealing and cargo ventilation.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge. Trimming will be necessary to avoid the formation of overhanging cargo faces.
CLEAN UP Holds must be swept clean and then washed out to remove all traces of this cargo. Pay particular attention to bilge wells.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Dolomite
CARGO DOLOMİTE
DESCRİPTİON Dolomite is a light yellow/brown coloured mineral stone, which is very hard and compact. It is used in steelmaking as part of a flux mix for producing slag; or a fettling for containing molten metal in an open hearth. Dolomite fines are used for the manufacture of refractory bricks.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines up to 32mm N/A 0.6 - 0.7

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep dean and clear of residues of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Ferro Alloys
CARGO FERRO ALLOYS
DESCRİPTİON Extremely heavy cargo. The most common ores in this category are ferro-manganese; silica manganese and ferrosilicon (which is dealt with separately).
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines to 300mm N/A 0.18 - 0.28

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean and clear of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s. As the ore is extremely heavy care must be exercised to ensure that loading is evenly spread across tank tops to spread the weight. Do not let loader driver pile ore in centre of hatch during loading.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Usually by electro-hydraulic grab.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Ferrosilicon
CARGO FERROSİLİCON (CONTAİNİNG MORE THAN 25% BUT LESS THAN 90% SİLİCON) (INCLUDİNG BRİQUETTES) (SEE ALSO APPENDİX III)

DESCRİPTİON Ferrosilicon is an extremely heavy cargo which, if it comes into contact with moisture or water may evolve hydrogen, a flammable gas which may form explosive mixtures with air and may, under similar circumstances, produce phosphine and arsine, which are highly toxic gases.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines to 300mm
Briquettes N/A 0.48 - 0.72
0.65 - 0.90

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix B. Material possessing chemical hazards.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Must be absolutely clean and dry. Holds must be inspected by an Australian Maritime Safety Authority Surveyor, prior to loading.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Must be kept absolutely dry. A certificate must be given to the master by the shipper stating that the material has been stored under cover but exposed to the weather for not less than three days prior to shipment.
LOADİNG Trim reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s. Stow evenly across tank tops. Refer to Appendix III and IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.

PRECAUTİONS Refer to Appendix III and IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.

CARRİAGE Special precautions - refer to Appendix III.

DİSCHARGE Grab discharge - refer to Appendix III.

CLEAN UP Double sweep clean - avoid using water because of danger of gas.


Fly Ash
CARGO FLY ASH
DESCRİPTİON Fly Ash is a fine powder used as a partial cement replacement material, which becomes almost fluid in nature when aerated or significantly disturbed thereby creating a very minimal angle of repose. After loading is completed deaeration occurs over several hours and the material settles into a stable mass. Fly Ash dust can be a major concern during loading and discharge if the vessel is not specially designed as a powder carrier or if the discharge equipment is not fitted with special dust control mechanisms.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fine Powder N/A 0.8 - 1.2

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds should be double swept clean and totally free of any residues of previous cargoes. In the case of previous cargoes being carbohydrate or starchy particularly sugar, holds must be meticulously washed and dried. The smallest amount of sugar can render the whole cargo useless.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Do not load in rain if not being loaded in a totally enclosed system. Keep non-working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Consideration should be given as to whether fly ash has had sufficient time to settle before sailing and guidance may be sought through the I.M.O. Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, Appendix C.
PRECAUTİONS Ensure hold bilge wells are dry, taped up and made sift proof. Protect machinery, accommodation and equipment from dust ingress. Persons involved in loading should wear protective clothing, goggles and dust filter masks, if not a closed circuit loading.
CARRİAGE Hatches must be sealed. Shut all vents and access ways. DO NOT pump bilges in fly ash holds unless absolutely necessary.
DİSCHARGE If using grabs and not discharging in a closed circuit system ensure the vessel is again protected against dust ingress and personnel are wearing the appropriate protective clothing, goggles and facemasks. Protect the cargo from high humidity and moisture (rain) ingress.
CLEAN UP Before washdown begins, holds, decks, houses, machinery etc. should be thoroughly swept. Pay particular attention to bilge wells and framework in holds. Then hose down and discharge in an appropriate manner. (The ash is not toxic; represents Suspended Solids loading only).


Granulated Slag
CARGO GRANULATED SLAG
DESCRİPTİON This is a residue from steelworks blast furnaces and has a dirty grey, lumpy appearance.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Up to 5mm N/A 0.9

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be loaded in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Slag dust is fine and has abrasive characteristics. Protect bilge wells and machinery from dust. This material should not be loaded hot.
CARRİAGE No special requirements.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean.


Gypsum
CARGO GYPSUM
DESCRİPTİON A natural Hydrated Calcium Sulphate. Insoluble in water. It is loaded as a fine powder that "clags" into lumps up to 100mm. Gypsum is used in the production of cement, tiles, plaster and plate glass. Average moisture content is 1% to 2%.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
0mm to 100mm N/A 0.67 - 0.78

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazards.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Double sweep and hose out after previous cargo.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be worked in light rain - not heavy rain. Close non-working hatches in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge. Gypsum has tendency to cling to frames, ladders and shedder plates.
CLEAN UP Gypsum is not water-soluble and can be difficult to wash down. Ensure that decks and holds are shovelled and swept dean before hosing.


Hot Briquetted-Red Iron (H.B.I.)
CARGO HOT BRİQUETTED-RED IRON (H.B.I.) - (IMPORTANT - SEE ALSO APPENDİX V)
*REFERRED TO İN B.C. CODE AS "DİRECT REDUCED IRON - BRİQUETTES, HOT-MOULDED.
DESCRİPTİON HBI is a material derived from a densification process whereby the direct reduced iron (DRI) feed material is subjected to a hot moulding process by which briquettes of iron are formed under pressure at a temperature greater than 650C at time of moulding and has a density greater than 5.0gms/cm"
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Briquettes
90mm x 60mm x 30mm
(approx) 350 - 380
(approx) 0.35
(approx)

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix B. Material Hazardous in Bulk.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds must be clean and dry before receiving cargo, and be free of foreign substances.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Cargo must be kept dry at all times. Loading must ceace immediately with the onset of rain and hatches closed. Loading systems must be run after rain so that accumulations of water are dried off.
LOADİNG Trim reasonably level in the boundaries of the cargo s. The cargo should be loaded in layers of not more than 2.0 metres deep to ensure that the concentration of fines in the stow are minimised.
PRECAUTİONS Refer to Appendix V and the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.

CARRİAGE For special precautions refer to Appendix V.

DİSCHARGE Usually Grab discharge - refer to Appendix V.

CLEAN UP Accumulations of dust and fines should be removed as soon as possible and the ship washed down, preferably with fresh water.


Iron Ore
CARGO IRON ORE
DESCRİPTİON Iron ore vanes in colour from dark grey to rusty red. It varies in iron content from haematite, (high-grade ore) to iron stone of the lower commercial ranges.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines to 250mm N/A 0.29 - 0.80

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. Can be loaded in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Iron ore cargoes may affect magnetic compasses. Normally, loading rates are very high, preplanning of ballasting operation is essential.
CARRİAGE No special precautions necessary.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean.


Iron Ore Pellets
CARGO IRON ORE PELLETS
DESCRİPTİON Pellets are approximately spherical lumps formed by crushing iron ore into a powder. This iron oxide is formed into pellets by using clay as a binder and then hardening by firing in kilns at 13150.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
6mm - 19mm N/A 0.47

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean. Make sure bilge wells are covered with burlap.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special requirements. Can be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and wash out.


Limesand
CARGO LİMESAND
DESCRİPTİON Limesand is a creamy white to light brown sand with a high lime content. It is used as part of a flux in blast furnaces after agglomeration with other fines in the sinter plant.
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fine particles 300 - 500 (1) 0.50 - 0.98

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean and remove residue of previous cargo.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. Can be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Dry sand will run readily. Make sure hold bilge wells are well protected and covered to prevent ingress.
CARRİAGE No special requirements.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep out and hose down.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Limestone
CARGO LİMESTONE
DESCRİPTİON Limestone varies in colour from cream through white to medium dark grey. (When freshly broken).
CHARACTERİSTİCS SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines to 75mm N/A 0.67 - 0.84

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special requirements. Can be loaded in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Ensure hold bilge wells are well covered and protected to prevent ingress.
CARRİAGE No special requirements.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep out and hose down.


Magnesia (Deadburned)
CARGO MAGNESİA (DEADBURNED)
DESCRİPTİON Also known as deadburned magnesite, electrofused magnesia, magnesite clinker and magnesia clinker. It is manufactured in briquetted form and is usually white, brown or grey. It is very similar in size, appearance and handling to gravel and is dry and dusty. It is used for refractory purposes.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Approx 30mm to fines N/A 0.5

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard. Deadburned magnesia is natural magnesite calcined at very high temperatures, which results in a non-reactive magnesium oxide which does not hydrate or produce spontaneous heat.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds must be very clean and dry as avoidance of contamination is critical. Grain hold cleanliness conditions are appropriate. Make sure bilge wells are dry and covered.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Cargo must be kept dry and loading not to take place during rain. Non-working hatches to be kept covered at all times. Cargo must be kept free of any contaminating dust during windy conditions.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Guard against any possible contamination from other part cargoes. Prior to loading, a declaration should be provided by the manufacturer or shipper, stating that the material has been sufficiently heat treated and is ready for shipment.
CARRİAGE Tape all hatches. Guard against condensation and other water contamination.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge with above weather precautions to apply.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Magnesite
CARGO MAGNESİTE
DESCRİPTİON Magnesite is white to yellow in colour. It is dry and dusty and is used in the manufacture of refractory bricks.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines to dust N/A 0.7

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds must be very clean. Magnesite is very susceptible to contamination. Where possible wash out with fresh water. Make sure holds are dry before loading. Make sure bilge wells are dry and covered.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Cargo must be kept dry. Do not load in rain and keep non-working hatches covered at all times.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS After loading cover cargo with clean tarpaulins.
CARRİAGE Tape all hatches. Guard against condensation.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge. Do not work in rain.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Magnetite
CARGO MAGNETİTE
DESCRİPTİON Very fine black mineral that is used in coal washing plants.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE T.M.L. ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fines 9.2% N/A 0.33 - 0.57

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix A. Material that may liquefy.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds must be absolutely clean and free of all residues from previous cargoes. Preferably washed out. Ensure bilge wells are clean and covered with burlap.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special requirements, may be worked in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS If cargo appears excessively wet before loading, it should be tested for flow characteristics. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.
CARRİAGE Check holds frequently for any signs of liquefaction.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and wash out.


Manganese Ore
CARGO MAGANESE ORE
DESCRİPTİON Manganese ore is black to brownish black in colour. It is a very heavy cargo and is used in the steelmaking process to harden steel.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Fine dust to lumps N/A fines - 0.47
lumps - 0.5

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to Hquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Double sweep clean of other cargo residue. If chrome ore has previously been carried all traces of it must be removed before loading manganese ore. The smallest amount of chrome ore can render a parcel of manganese ore useless.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special requirements. Can be loaded in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Because of the heavy nature of the ore it is necessary to ensure that weight distribution is evenly spread over the tank tops. Protective clothing should be worn, including goggles and face masks, by persons involved in, loading and discharge.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE By grab. Usually electro-hydraulic grabs are used.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Millscale - Iron Ore (Sinter Feed)
CARGO MİLLSCALE - IRON ORE (SİNTER FEED)
DESCRİPTİON Millscale is an oxide or iron which is recycled as small grey flakes as a ferrous feed for the sinter plant.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Small flakes
6mm to fine grit N/A 0.44

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix A. Material which may liquefy. NOTE: Very fine particle shipments should be treated as concentrates under Appendices A and B contained in the IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Double sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Can be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG This cargo must be trimmed reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargoes s.
PRECAUTİONS Usually the cargo is drained before shipment. If not then tests must be made to determine the T.M.L. before loading commences.
CARRİAGE Check frequently that the cargo is not becoming fluid.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Mineral Concentrates
CARGO MİNERAL CONCENTRATES
• ZİNC CONCENTRATES
• LEAD CONCENTRATES
• COPPER CONCENTRATES
• LOW GRADE MİDDLİNGS CONCENTRATES
• PYRİTES
DESCRİPTİON Mineral concentrates are refined ores in which the valuable components have been enriched by eliminating the bulk of waste materials. Generally the particle size is small although agglomerates sometimes exist in concentrates which have not been freshly produced. In some concentrates, oxidation may cause self-heating.
CHARACTERİSTİCS T.M.L. ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
90% of flow moisture
point. Values can vary
over a large range. 0.35 - 0.60 A.

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Refer to Metal Sulphide Concentrates in Appendix B of IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean and clear of residues of previous cargo.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be loaded and discharged in light rain, unless flow moisture point is very low.
PRECAUTİONS Beware of oxidation. Ventilate and test atmosphere before entry into holds. Breathing apparatus should be used. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes. As particle size, T.M.L., and possibility of oxidation and self heating are vital factors in the carriage of concentrates, the Master must ensure that he has all relevant information before loading from the shipper.
Shipments of Metal Sulphide Concentrates from newly developed sources should be notified to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority together with a form setting out the detailed mineralogical description, chemical analysis, angle of repose, T.M.L. and history in stockpile etc. For these shipments, the AMSA Surveyor may require the Master to perform temperature monitoring of the cargo during carriage.
CARRİAGE Ensure that hatches are watertight. Tape seams if necessary. Keep a careful check that cargo is not becoming fluid. The cargo should not be ventilated.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep and wash clean.


Monoammonium Phosphate (M.A.P.)
CARGO MONOAMMONİUM PHOSPHATE (M.A.P.)
DESCRİPTİON MAP is a processed fertiliser designed for use on grain and oilseed crops. It is odourless and comes in the form of brownish-grey granules. It can be very dusty.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
2mm - 4mm 350 - 400 (1) 1.0 - 1.1

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Clean and dry with no residues of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS MAP is hygroscopic and will harden and cake in high humidity. Do not load in rain and keep non working hatches closed.
LOADİNG Trim cargoes reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Personnel should wear protective clothing and goggles.
CARRİAGE Bulk MAP has PH of 4.5 and with high moisture content can be corrosive. Condensation, cargo sweating and leaking hatch covers must be carefully watched. Pay close attention to hatch sealing and cargo ventilation. This cargo will decompose burlap or canvas cloth covering bilge wells. Continuous carriage may have detrimental structural effects over a long period of time.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge practices. Trimming may be necessary to avoid the formation of overhanging cargo faces.
CLEAN UP Holds must be swept clean and then washed out to remove all traces of this cargo. Pay particular attention to bilge wells.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Muriate of Potash
CARGO MURİATE OF POTASH
DESCRİPTİON Brown, pink or white in colour, muriate of potash is produced in granular crystals for use in fertilizers. It is odourless.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Granular 2mm - 4mm 350 - 400+ (1) 0.9 - 1.0

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean and ensure holds are dry.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Muriate of potash is hygroscopic and will cake if wet. Do not load in rain and close non working hatches.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE Seal hatches to prevent water ingress. Carry out normal ventilation practices.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge. Trimming may be necessary to avoid the formation of overhanging cargo faces.
CLEAN UP Muriate of potash is corrosive when wet. Sweep clean and thoroughly wash out holds and bilge wells.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Pencil Pitch
CARGO PENCİL PİTCH
DESCRİPTİON Pencil pitch is made from Tar produced during the coking of coal. It is black with a distinctive odour. It is extruded into its characteristic pencil shape to make handling easier.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
9mm diameter and up
to 0.7cm long 220 - 380 (1) 1.25 - 2.0

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix B. Material possessing chemical hazards. Melts when heated; combustible; dust may cause skin and eye irritation.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds must be absolutely clean and clear of all traces of previous cargoes.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Cargo must be kept dry. Keep non-working hatches closed. Do not load in rain or high winds. To avoid skin and eye irritations cargo should only be loaded at night.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to boundaries of cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS General Precautions to be observed:
1. Permission to load is not required. However, it is prudent to have an independent surveyor to attend.
2. Holds should be washed out and dry before loading.
3. Loading/Discharging should be during hours of darkness only.
4. Loading/Discharging is to be stopped during rain and hold covered.
5. Personnel engaged in loading are to be supplied with approved protective clothing and goggles.
6. Eyewashes and sun screen creams are to be readily available.
7. Keep personnel in area of loading to minimum. Make sure that they are aware of all the hazards involved.
8. Personnel engaged in the handling of pencil pitch should wash well and keep out of the sun for a few days.
9. Close the hatch after each nights work and hose down the ship to remove all dust.
10. If wind is blowing dust about it is recommended that loading or discharging should cease.
11. Clean up all spillages about the decks whilst it is still dark.
12. Accommodation ventilation should be dosed. Air conditioning systems should be on re-cycle mode when this cargo is being handled - either loading or discharging.
CARRİAGE Tape hatches. Check for condensation.
DİSCHARGE By grab. Should be at night only. Wash ship down frequently to keep dust to an absolute minimum.
CLEAN UP Wash down holds and whole of ship thoroughly.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Phosphate Rock (Uncalcined)
CARGO PHOSPHATE ROCK (UNCALCİNED)
DESCRİPTİON Phosphate rock is an ore in which phosphorus and oxygen are chemically united. Depending on the source, it is tan to dark grey, dry and dusty. It is used in the manufacture of Superphosphate.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Lumps to powder N/A 0.70 - 0.80

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. Can be worked in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Depending on its source this cargo may have a low angle of repose, but once settled it is not liable to shift. Personnel should wear protective clothing, goggles and face masks during loading and discharge.
CARRİAGE No special precautions required.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep residue and then wash vessel down.


Pig Iron
CARGO PİG IRON
DESCRİPTİON Foundry pig iron is cast in 28 grades into 20kg pigs. Each pig in Australia is approximately 540mm x 160mm x 67mm. Overseas, pigs might be slightly smaller. In a random heap, pig iron occupies approximately 50% of the apparent volume.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
See above N/A 0.28 - 0.30

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean. Clean out bilge wells and cover with burlap.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG Make sure stow is level and brows are in a straight line athwartships.
PRECAUTİONS Check vessel stability and stresses. Refer to notes below.
CARRİAGE No special precautions. Check lashings, if any, regularly.
DİSCHARGE Usually by magnet.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean.
PİG İRON İS USUALLY LOADED FROM TUBS. THESE ARE LOWERED BY A CRANE İNTO THE HOLD AND THE CONTENTS SPİLLED OUT. THE FİRST FEW TUBS SHOULD BE LOWERED ONTO THE TANK TOP TO AVOİD DAMAGE. BULLDOZE UNDER OVERHANGS AND İNTO THE WİNGS.
SEPARATİON OF GRADES İS AN İMPORTANT CONSİDERATİON AND ADEQUATE, SUİTABLE MATERİAL SHOULD BE ON HAND FOR THİS.
METHODS OF GRADE SEPARATİON (WİTHİN ONE HOLD) ARE:
a. STOW DİFFERENT GRADES AT OPPOSİTE ENDS OF HOLD.
b. SEPARATE GRADES USİNG STEEL PRODUCTS OR BOLSTERS OR PİG TUBS (PREFERABLY FULL).
c. USE CHİCKEN WİRE (DOUBLE RUN) AND PLASTİC OVER THE OVERSTOWED GRADE İF OVERSTOW İS UNAVOİDABLE.
d. NEVER STOW AN "F" GRADE AND AN "SP" GRADE İN THE SAME HATCH İN BULK.
GRADE SEPARATİON SHOULD BE, PREFERABLY, BY A VERTİCAL FACE ATHWARTSHİPS, RATHER THAN A HORİZONTAL SEPARATİON. MARK EACH GRADE CAREFULLY AND ENSURE THAT TRUCKS SERVİCİNG EACH HOLD ARE ACCURATELY MARKED.
THE GRADES ARE MARKED WİTH WHİTE CLOTH LABELS, THE GRADE NUMBERS PRİNTED İN BLACK. IF MORE THAN ONE GRADE İS LOADED İN A HOLD COVER EACH GRADE AS İT İS COMPLETED TO AVOİD MİXİNG FROM SPİLLAGE.
WHEN THE CARGO İS LOADED, BULLDOZERS ARE USED TO LEVEL THE STOW FROM WİNG TO WİNG AND ALSO SUBSTANTİALLY FORE AND AFT.
TO AVOİD UNDUE STİFFNESS, PİG İRON, İF POSSİBLE, SHOULD BE STOWED İN THE 'TWEEN DECKS' İN TUBS OR BOLSTERS. THE AMOUNT DEPENDİNG ON THE SHİPS STABİLİTY REQUİREMENTS, BOLSTERS OR TUBS AVAİLABLE AND 'TWEEN DECK LOADİNG LİMİTATİONS. ANY BOLSTERS OR TUBS STOWED ON STEEL DECKS REQUİRE DUNNAGE UNDER THEM AND SUİTABLE LASHİNGS.
CARRİAGE
NO SPECİAL PRECAUTİONS ARE NECESSARY DURİNG CARRİAGE APART FROM CHECKİNG ANY LASHİNGS REGULARLY.
DİSCHARGE
DİSCHARGE OF PİG İRON İS BY MAGNET, OR BY HAND İN SOME OVERSEAS PORTS.
ADJACENT GRADES SHOULD BE COVERED WHEN WORKİNG A MAGNET TO AVOİD STRAY PİGS MİXİNG. CARE İS REQUİRED WHEN APPROACHİNG SEPARATİONS AS THE MAGNETS WİLL TEAR THROUGH CHİCKEN WİRE EASİLY.
WHEN DİSCHARGİNG İNTO TRUCKS, CHECK FOR RESİDUES OF OTHER PİG THAT MİGHT REMAİN İN THE TRUCKS. ENSURE TRUCKS ARE CLEARLY MARKED WİTH THE GRADE THEY ARE CARRYİNG AND THE HOLD THEY ARE WORKİNG.


Potash
CARGO POTASH
DESCRİPTİON Brown, pink or white in colour, potash is produced in granular crystals for use in fertilisers and soaps. It is odourless.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Powder - 4mm 330 (1) 0.77 - 1.03

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean and ensure holds are dry.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Potash is hygroscopic and will cake if wet. Do not load in rain and close non-working hatches.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
CARRİAGE Seal hatches to prevent water ingress. Carry out normal ventilation practices.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Potash is mildly corrosive. Sweep clean and thoroughly wash out holds and bilge wells.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Quartzite
CARGO QUARTZİTE
DESCRİPTİON Quartzite is a compact, granular, metamorphosed sandstone containing quartz. It is white to grey in colour and its size varies from large rocks to pebbles. It may also be shipped in semi-crushed and graded sizes.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
10mm - 200mm N/A 0.64

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS May be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Dust is very abrasive. Operators should wear goggles and face masks.
CARRİAGE No special precautions required.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Double sweep out before wash down.


Salt
CARGO SALT
DESCRİPTİON Fine white grains.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Grains to 12mm N/A 0.81 -1.12

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS No residue from other cargoes. All loose rust and scale is to be removed. Shippers may require holds to be limed washed with slake lime to surveyors satisfaction of cleanliness.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Salt is water soluble and must be kept dry.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special requirements.
CARRİAGE Seal hatches and avoid excessive condensation.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and wash out.


Soda Ash
CARGO SODA ASH
DESCRİPTİON Soda ash is composed of white, odourless, sugar like grains and dust. It is made by the combustion of salt and limestone. It is used in the manufacture of glass, paper and detergents.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Less than 1mm N/A 0.95 - 1.2

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Clean and dry and absolutely free of other cargo residue.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Do not work in rain; close hatches that are not being worked.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Soda ash is ruined on contact with oil. It will strip paint and slowly corrode aluminium if wet. Soda ash is dry and very dusty so hatch openings during loading should be kept to a minimum.
CARRİAGE Seal hatches. No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normally by suction. Can also be by grab.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean. Residue can be pumped as a slurry during wash out.


Sugar
CARGO SUGAR
DESCRİPTİON Depending on type, sugar may be either brown or white granules, with a very low moisture content to the order of 0% to 0.05%.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Up to 3mm N/A 1.0 - 1.6

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Holds must be clean from previous cargo. Rust scale and flaking paint removed. Wash out and have dry for surveyors inspection.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Sugar is highly soluble and therefore must not be worked in rain. Cover holds that are not being worked.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS No special requirements.
CARRİAGE Must be kept dry. Seal hatches if leaks are suspected. Do not ventilate on passage to avoid salt contamination and variations in moisture content which might cause drying out and "caking" or an unacceptable moisture increase.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Double sweep clean and then hose out.
Sulphur
CARGO SULPHUR
DESCRİPTİON Bright yellow elemental formed sulphur in bulk is imported from Canada and U.S. West Coast.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE IMO CLASS ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Slate to 10mm
granules & prills
to 5mm 4.1 350 - 400(1) 0.85 - 0.95

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix B. Material hazardous in bulk. Easily ignited by external sources. Not liable to liquefy.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Must be thoroughly clean and washed with fresh water. Holds should be limewashed on trimming plates and tank tops. Upper sections should have sound coating of paint.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions can be worked in the rain.
LOADİNG Sulphur is loaded in a damp or wet condition. Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
CARRİAGE Seal hatches tightly. Remove ALL fuses serving holds and adjacent s. Any hold ventilators should have spark arresting screens fitted. Pump bilge wells regularly to prevent accumulation of water/acid solution.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP There is a possibility of dust explosion, especially after discharge and during cleaning. It is strongly recommended that holds are washed out with fresh water and NOT swept. Ensure that all residues are washed away and the holds thoroughly dried. Wet dust or residues will form highly corrosive sulphurous acid, which is extremely dangerous to personnel and will, of course, corrode steel.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Talc
CARGO TALC
DESCRİPTİON Talc is an extremely soft, whitish, green or greyish hydrated magnesium silicate. It has a characteristic soapy, or greasy feel. Talc is used as a filler, coating, pigment, dusting agent and in ceramics, rubber, plastics, lubricants and talcum powders.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
<12mm N/A 0.7

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Sweep clean.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. Can be loaded in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s as talc may shift - particularly in smaller vessels.
PRECAUTİONS No special precautions.
CARRİAGE No special precautions.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Sweep clean and hose out.


Urea
CARGO UREA (UP TO 46% NİTROGEN)
DESCRİPTİON White, granular, odourless commodity that resembles sugar in appearance, hygroscopic - may be treated with dolomite or phosphate rock to reduce hygroscopicity. Urea is used for fertilizer; animal feed and chemical. Moisture content is less than 1%. Gives off ammonia odour.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
2mm - 4mm 280 - 450 (1) 1.2 - 1.3

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix C. Neither liable to liquefy nor to possess chemical hazard.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Thoroughly sweep clean and then hose out and dried.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS Must be kept dry. Do not load in the rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
CARRİAGE Urea must be kept dry. Use tape to seal hatches. Do not ventilate so as to keep moist air to a minimum
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge. Trimming may be necessary to avoid formation of overhanging cargo faces.
CLEAN UP Urea does not corrode steel but in a water solution may strip paintwork. Sweep, hose out and dry holds.
(1) Angle of Repose varies with the source of the material. Refer to IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes, using the Angle of Repose provided by the Shipper.


Woodpulp Pellets
CARGO WOODPULP PELLETS
DESCRİPTİON The pellets are brown in colour; very hard and cannot be easily squashed. They are light and are about half the size of a bottle cork. The pellets are made of compacted woodchips.
CHARACTERİSTİCS
SİZE ANGLE OF REPOSE STOWAGE FACTOR
M3/T
Approx. 15mm x 20mm N/A 3.07

IMO CLASSİFİCATİON Appendix B. M.H.B. - material possessing chemical hazard. Some shipments may be subject to oxidation leading to depletion of oxygen and increase of carbon dioxide in cargo and adjacent s.
HOLD CLEANLİNESS Clean and dry with no residue of previous cargo.
WEATHER PRECAUTİONS No special precautions. May be loaded in rain.
LOADİNG Trim cargo reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo s.
PRECAUTİONS Refer to Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes. Separate as for Class 4.1 materials as woodchips can be easily ignited by external sources; is readily combustible and can ignite by friction. Entry of personnel into cargo s is not permitted until all safety precautions have been taken. In dry weather, dust which settles on deck, will dry out quickly and is easily ignited by naked flame, e.g. cigarette; no smoking or naked flame is to be permitted in vicinity of loading operation.
CARRİAGE Keep well ventilated.
DİSCHARGE Normal grab discharge.
CLEAN UP Double sweep clean and wash out.




Appendix II (b) Coal
(See also Appendix A of the B.C. Code)
BC NO. IMO CLASS MFAG TABLE NO. APPROXİMATE
STOWAGE FACTOR
(M3/T) EMS NO.
010 MHB 311,616+ 0.79 to 1.53 B14
Properties and characteristics
1. Coals may emit methane, a flammable gas. A methane/air mixture containing between 5% and 16% methane constitutes an explosive atmosphere which can be ignited by sparks or naked flame, e.g. electrical or frictional sparks, a match or lighted cigarette. Methane is lighter than air and may, therefore, accumulate in the upper region of the cargo space or other enclosed spaces. If the cargo space boundaries are not tight, methane can seep through into spaces adjacent to the cargo space
2. Coals may be subject to oxidation, leading to depletion of oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide in the cargo space (see also section 3 and appendix F of the B.C. Code).
3. Some coals may be liable to self-heating that could lead to spontaneous combustion in the cargo space. Flammable and toxic gases, including carbon monoxide, may be produced. Carbon monoxide is an odourless gas, slightly lighter than air, and has flammable limits in air of 12% to 75% by volume. It is toxic by inhalation, with an affinity for blood haemoglobin over 200 times that of oxygen.
4. Some coals may be liable to react with water and produce acids which may cause corrosion. Flammable and toxic gases, including hydrogen, may be produced. Hydrogen is an odourless gas, much lighter than air, and has flammable limits in air of 4% to 75% by volume.
Segregation and stowage requirements
1. Boundaries of cargo spaces where materials are carried should be resistant to fire and liquids.
2. Coals should be "separated from" goods of classes 1 (division 1.4), 2,3,4, and 5 in packaged form (see IMDG Code) and "separated from" solid bulk materials of classes 4 and 5.1
3. Stowage of goods of class 5.1 in packaged form or sold bulk materials of class 5.1 above or below a coal cargo should be prohibited.
4. Coals should be "separated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from " goods of class 1 other than division 1.4.
Note:
For the interpretation of the segregation terms see paragraph 9.3.3.
* For comprehensive information on transport of any material listed, refer to sections 110 of this Code.
+ Refer to paragraph 6. 1. 1. (Asphyxia) of the MFAG.

General requirements for all coals
1. Prior to loading, the shipper or his appointed agent should provide in writing to the master the characteristics of the cargo and the recommended safe handling procedures for loading and transport of the cargo. As a minimum, the cargo's contract specifications for moisture content, sulphur content and size should be stated, and especially whether the cargo may be liable to emit methane or self-heat.
2. The master should be satisfied that he has received such information prior to accepting the cargo. If the shipper has advised that the cargo is liable to emit methane or self-heat, the master should additionally refer to the "Special precautions".
3. Before and during loading, and while the material remains on board, the master should observe the following:
1. All cargo spaces and bilge wells should be clean and dry. Any residue of waste material or previous cargo should be removed, including removable cargo battens, before loading.
2. All electrical cables and components situated in cargo spaces and adjacent spaces should be free from defects. Such cables and electrical components should be safe for use in an explosive atmosphere or positively isolated.
3. The ship should be suitably fitted and carry on board appropriate instruments for measuring the following without requiring entry in the cargo space:
 .3.1 concentration of methane in the atmosphere;
 .3.2 concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere;
 .3.3 concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere; and
 .3.4 pH value of cargo hold bilge samples.
These instruments should be regularly serviced and calibrated. Ship personnel should be trained in the use of such instruments. Details of gas measurement procedures are given at the end of this entry.
4. It is recommended that means be provided for measuring the temperature of the cargo in the range 00C to 1000C. Such arrangements should enable the temperature of the coal to be measured while being loaded and during the voyage without requiring entry into the cargo space.
5. The ship should carry on board the self-contained breathing apparatus required by SOLAS regulation 11-2/17. The self-contained breathing apparatus should be worn only by personnel trained in its use (see also section 3 and appendix F of the B.C. Code).
6. Smoking and the use of naked flames should not be permitted in the cargo areas and adjacent spaces and appropriate warning notices should be posted in conspicuous places. Burning, cutting, chipping, welding or other sources of ignition should not be permitted in the vicinity of cargo spaces or in other adjacent spaces, unless the space has been properly ventilated and the methane gas measurements indicate it is safe to do so.
7. The master should ensure that the coal cargo is not stowed adjacent to hot areas.
8. Prior to departure, the master should be satisfied that the surface of the material has been trimmed reasonably level to the boundaries of the cargo space to avoid the formation of gas pockets and to prevent air from permeating the body of the coal. Casings leading into the cargo space should be adequately sealed. The shipper should ensure that the master receives the necessary co-operation from the loading terminal (see also section 5 of the B.C. Code).
9. The atmosphere in the space above the cargo in each cargo space should be regularly monitored for the presence of methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide. Details of gas monitoring procedures are given at the end of this entry. Records of these reading should be maintained. The frequency of the testing should depend upon the information provided by the shipper and the information obtained through the analysis of the atmosphere in the cargo space.
10. Unless expressly directed otherwise, all holds should be surface ventilated for the first 24 hours after departure from the loading port. During this period, one measurement should be taken from one sample point per hold.

If after 24 hours the methane concentrations are at an acceptably low level, the ventilators should be closed. If not, they should remain open until acceptably low levels are obtained. In either event, measurements should be continued on a daily basis.

If significant concentrations of methane subsequently occur in unventilated holds, the appropriate special precautions as described in section 2.2.1 should apply.
11. The master should ensure, as far as possible, that any gases which may be emitted from the materials do not accumulate in adjacent enclosed spaces.
12. The master should ensure that enclosed working spaces, e.g. storerooms, carpenter's shop, passage ways, tunnels, etc. are regularly monitored for the presence of methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide. Such spaces should be adequately ventilated.
13. Regular hold bilge testing should be systematically carried out. If the pH monitoring indicates that a corrosion risk exists, the master should ensure that all bilges are kept dry during the voyage in order to avoid possible accumulation of acids on tank tops and in the bilge system.
14. If the behaviour of the cargo during the voyage differs from that specified in the cargo declaration, the master should report such differences to the shipper. Such reports will enable the shipper to maintain records on the behaviour of the coal cargoes, so that the information provided to the master can be reviewed in the light of transport experience.
15. The Administration may approve alternative requirements to those recommended in this schedule.

Special Precautions
1. Coals emitting methane If the shipper has advised that the cargo is liable to emit methane or analysis of the atmosphere in the cargo space indicates the presence of methane in excess of 20% of the lower explosion limit (LEL), the following additional precautions should be taken:
1. Adequate surface ventilation should be maintained. On no account should air be directed into the body of the coal as air could promote self-heating.
2. Care should be taken to vent any accumulated gases prior to removal of the hatch covers or other openings for any reason, including unloading. Cargo hatches and other openings should be opened carefully to avoid creating sparks. Smoking and the use of naked flame should be prohibited.
3. Personnel should not be permitted to enter the cargo space or enclosed adjacent spaces unless the space has been ventilated and the atmosphere tested and found to be gas-free and to have sufficient oxygen to support life. If this is not possible, emergency entry into the space should be undertaken only by trained personnel wearing self-contained breathing apparatus, under the supervision of a responsible officer. In addition, special precautions to ensure that no source of ignition is carried into the space should be observed (see also section 3 and appendix F of the B.C. Code).
4. The master should ensure that enclosed working spaces, e.g. storerooms, carpenter's shops, passage ways, tunnels, etc. are regularly monitored for the presence of methane. Such spaces should be adequately ventilated and, in the case of mechanical ventilation, only equipment safe for use in an explosive atmosphere should be used. Testing is especially important prior to permitting personnel to enter such spaces or energising equipment within those spaces.
2. Self-heating coals
1. If the shipper has advised that the cargo is liable to self-heat, the master should seek confirmation that the precautions intended to be taken and the procedures intended for monitoring the cargo during the voyage are adequate.
2. If the cargo is likely to self-heat or analysis of the atmosphere n the cargo space indicates and increasing concentration of carbon monoxide, then the following additional precautions should be taken:
.2.1 The hatches should be closed immediately after completion of loading in each cargo space. The hatch covers can also be additionally sealed with a suitable sealing tape. Surface ventilation should be limited to the absolute minimum time necessary to remove methane which may have accumulated. Forced ventilation should not be used. On no account should air be directed into the body of the coal as air could promote self heating.
.2.2 Personnel should not be allowed to enter the cargo space, unless they are wearing self-contained breathing apparatus and access is critical to the safety of the ship or safety of life. The self-contained breathing apparatus should be worn only by personnel trained in its use (see also section 3 and appendix F of the B.C. Code).
.2.3 When required by the competent authority, the carbon monoxide concentration in each cargo space should be measured at regular time intervals to detect self-heating.
.2.4 If at the time of loading, when the hatches are open, the temperature of the coal exceeds 550C, expert advice should be obtained.
.2.5 If the carbon monoxide level is increasing steadily, a potential self-heating may be developing. The cargo space should be completely closed down and all ventilation creased. The master should seek expert advice immediately. Water should not be used for cooling the material or fighting coal cargo fires at sea, but may be used for cooling the boundaries of the cargo space.
.2.6 Information to be passed to owners
The most comprehensive record of measurements will always be the log used to record daily results. The coal cargo monitoring log for the voyage should be faxed, or the appropriate content should be telexed to the vessel's owners.
The following minimum information is essential if an accurate assessment of the situation is to be achieved.
a. identity of the holds involved; monitoring results covering carbon monoxide, methane and oxygen concentrations;
b. if available, temperature of coal, location and method used to obtain results;
c. time gas samples taken (monitoring routine);
d. time ventilators opened/closed;
e. quantity of coal in hold(s) involved;
f. type of coal as per shipper's declaration, and any special precautions indicated on declaration;
g. date loaded, and ETA at intended discharge port (which should be specified); and
h. comments or observations from the ship's master.

Procedures for gas monitoring of coal cargoes
.1 Observations
Carbon monoxide monitoring, when conducted in accordance with the following recommendations, will provide a reliable early indication of self-heating within a coal cargo. This allows preventive action to be considered without delay. A stead, rise in the level of carbon monoxide detected within a hold is a conclusive indication that self-heating is taking place.
All vessels engaged in the carriage of coal should carry on board an instrument for measuring methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide gas concentrations (general requirements for all coals, section 3.3 in the coal entry, appendix B), so that the atmosphere within the cargo space may be monitored. This instrument should be regularly serviced and calibrated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. When properly maintained and operated, this instrument will provide reliable data about the atmosphere within the cargo space. Care needs to be exercised in interpreting methane measurements carried out in the low oxygen concentrations often found in unventilated cargo holds. The catalytic sensors normally used for the detection of methane rely on the presence of sufficient oxygen for accurate measurement. This phenomenon does not affect the measurement of carbon monoxide, or measurement of methane by infrared sensor. Further guidance may be obtained from the instrument manufacturer.

.2 Sampling and measurement procedure
.2.1 Equipment
An instrument is required which is capable of measuring methane, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations. The instrument should be fitted with an aspirator, flexible connection and length of tubing to enable a representative sample to be obtained from within the square of the hatch. Stainless steel tubing approximately 0.5m in length and 6 mm nominal internal diameter with an integral stainless steel threaded collar is preferred. The collar is necessary to provide an adequate seal at the sampling point.
A suitable filter should be used to protect the instrument against the ingress of moisture as recommended by the manufacturer. The presence of even a small amount of moisture will compromise the accuracy of the measurement.
.2.2 Siting of sampling points
In order to obtain meaningful information about the behaviour of coal in a hold, gas measurements should be made via one sample point per hold. To ensure flexibility of measurement in adverse weather, however, two sample points should be provided per hold, one on the port side and one on the starboard side of the hatch cover. Measurement from either of these locations is satisfactory.
Each sample point should comprise a hole of diameter approximately 12mm positioned as near to the top of the hatch coaming as possible. It should be sealed with a screw cap to prevent ingress of water and air. It is essential that this cap is securely replaced after each measurement to maintain a tight seal.
The provision of any sample point should not compromise the seaworthiness of the vessel.
.2.3 Measurement
Ensure that the instrument is calibrated and working properly in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Remove the sealing cap, insert the stainless steel tube into the sampling point and tighten the integral cap to ensure an adequate seal. Connect the instrument to the sampling tube. Draw a sample of the hold atmosphere through the tube, using the aspirator, until steady readings are obtained. Log the results on a form which records cargo hold, date and time for each measurement.
.2.4 Measurement strategy
The identification of incipient self-heating from measurement of gas concentrations is more readily achieved under unventilated conditions. This is not always desirable because of the possibility of the accumulation of methane to dangerous concentrations. This is primarily, but not exclusively, a problem in the early stages of a voyage. Therefore it is recommended that holds are initially ventilated until measured methane concentrations are at an acceptably low level.
.2.5 Measurement in unventilated holds
Under normal conditions one measurement per day is sufficient as a precautionary measure. However, if carbon monoxide levels are higher than 30 ppm then the frequency should be increased to at least twice a day at suitably spaced intervals. Any additional results should be logged.
If the carbon monoxide level in any hold reaches 50 ppm a self-heating condition may be developing and the owners of the vessel should be notified.
.2.6 Measurement in ventilated holds
If the presence of methane is such that the ventilators are required to remain open, then a different procedure should be applied to enable the onset of any incipient self-heating to be detected.
To obtain meaningful data the ventilators should be closed for a period before the measurements are taken. This period may be chosen to suit the operational requirements of the vessel, but it is recommended that it is not less than four hours. It is vital in the interests of data interpretation that the shutdown time is constant whichever time period is selected. These measurements should be taken on a daily basis. If the carbon monoxide results exhibit a steady rise over three consecutive days, or exceed 50 ppm on any day, the owners of the vessel should be notified.
Appendix II (c) - Instructions to the Ship's Captain Transportation of Brown Coal Briquettes
1. Introduction
The transportation of brown coal briquettes is subject to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 'Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes' 1990, ed., Appendix B. The following instructions are specifically for the transportation of brown coal briquettes and cover all items in the above IMO Code.
Browncoal briquettes are manufactured by pressing dried coal particles into compressed blocks. Briquettes are easily ignited and are a free burning fuel. In bulk quantities, they are liable to spontaneous heating, but do not emit methane.
The underlying principle is that the briquettes are shipped in sealed holds, thus denying the briquettes access to sufficient atmospheric oxygen to sustain combustion. In fact, after sealing the holds, the briquettes consume the atmospheric oxygen initially present, to form an inert gas atmosphere of residual atmospheric nitrogen and carbon dioxide. To maintain this safe transport condition, forced or natural draft ventilation of the hold(s) must not be permitted at any stage during the voyage prior to discharge. Unlike, other coals, brown coal briquettes do not emit explosive gases (methane) during transport, eliminating any need to ventilate the hold(s) prior to discharge.
It is essential to note that during the voyage, the sealed hold(s) do not contain sufficient atmospheric oxygen to sustain life. Therefore the hold(s) must not be entered under any circumstances without the aid of breathing apparatus. Even after opening the hold(s) for discharge, the oxygen level should be 21% before entering the hold(s).
2. Preparation of the vessel for loading
1. Before accepting the vessel, a Marine Surveyor from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority may inspect the vessel for seaworthiness, especially the rubber seals on hatch covers and seals on ventilators.
2. All cargo s and bilge wells should be clean, dry and any residue or waste material from previous cargo should be removed, including removable cargo battens, before loading. It is also recommended that the bilge wells be protected by placing a sheet of burlap over the bilge well cover to prevent briquette dust blocking the pumps.
3. All electrical cables and components situated in cargo s and adjacent s should be free from defects and safe for use in a dusty environment, or positively isolated.
4. All ventilators, shafts and doors leading to and from the holds are to be closed and sealed to reduce air circulation to a minimum during loading and to prevent any circulation of air after the hatches have been closed.
5. Ascertain if the Australian Maritime Safety Authority requires temperature or gas readings in the cargo hold during the voyage. Procure and install equipment if required. If temperature readingsare required, then an acceptable method is to place a three point thermocouple loom three metres below the deck surface, immediately prior to filling the hatch square and exiting through a closed hatch cover for measurement using a digital thermometer. If gas readings are required, then an acceptable method is using a Dreager CO2/O2 tube.
3. Loading the vessel
1. Warning notices against smoking and the use of naked flames should be posted in the cargo area. No smoking, burning or chipping or other sources of ignition should be allowed in the vicinity of cargo s or adjacent s.
2. During loading, briquettes should not be stowed adjacent to steam pipes.
3. Briquettes should not be dropped further than one metre from the grab to minimize the creation of fines.
4. If possible holds should be loaded without interruption. The maximum advisable loading time for an individual hold is six days. Based on past loading experience, hot spots seldom develop in the first few days but a half filled hold that is kept open for six days or more can expect hot spots to develop.
5. Briquettes which show signs of steaming in wharf stockpiles should not be loaded.
6. If a 'hot spot' (i.e. steaming) is noticed in the hold during loading, then unload the 'hot spot' region onto the wharf. Spread the 'hot spot' region out on the wharf to allow heat removal. Check the area in the hold with a temperature probe (0.5 metres insertion) and if the temperature is below 550C continue loading. If the temperature is more than 550 C, repeat digging out. Act quickly and decisively.
7. Ensure that the briquette surface is trimmed reasonably level to the boundary wall to prevent air ingress. This is not required in a fully filled hold.
8. Broken stowage (i.e. half filled holds) should be avoided.
9. Close the hatch covers immediately after completion of loading in each hold. The hatch covers can also be additionally sealed with a suitable sealing tape (such as 'Ramneck"). Recheck that all ventilators are closed as no ventilation is permitted during transport.
4. Monitoring the cargo during the voyage
1. If requested by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, monitor the cargo temperatures twice daily and compare with air and sea temperatures.
2. If requested by the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, monitor the hold atmosphere twice daily.
3. Return the completed log of temperature/hold atmosphere information to the Australian Maritime Safety Authority upon arrival at the destination port.
4. If a large increase in temperature (i.e. 500C increase in 3 days) occurs relative to air/sea temperatures, then recheck hatch covers and ventilators for leaks and re-seal where necessary.
5. Under no circumstances should the hatches be opened or the hold entered during the voyage.
5. Preparation for discharge
1. Prior to opening the hatches, at least one water hose with a fine spray nozzle must be in readiness for each hold. Salt water is acceptable if no other water is available.
2. Only open the hatches immediately prior to commencement of discharge. The cargo may mist noticeably on a cool day, but this is harmless. Brown coal briquettes, unlike coal, do not emit methane during transport and so there is no risk of explosion. Under no condition should the holds be ventilated prior to discharge.
6. Discharge of the cargo
1. To prevent excessive dust during discharge, the cargo surface should be sprayed with a light cover of water.
2. If any personnel must enter the hold or work on the surface of the briquettes during discharge, then the hold atmosphere has to comply with an oxygen level of 21%. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gas levels should be measured. The recommended threshold level for carbon monoxide is 50 ppm (55 mg/m3). The recommended threshold level for carbon dioxide is 5,000 ppm (9,000mg/m3). Carbon dioxide is a product of coal oxidation. If diesel bulldozers, etc. are used in the hold they should be fitted with catalytic converters to reduce carbon dioxide, odour and particle emissions. Compliance with local regulations is required

During unloading, attention should be paid to the cargo for signs of 'hot spots' (i.e. steaming). If a 'hot spot' is detected, then spray the affected area with water and remove the 'hot spot' immediately to prevent spreading. Spread out the 'hot spot' area on the wharf away from the remainder of the cargo.
3. If the discharge is interrupted for more that eight hours, then the hatch covers and all other ventilation should be closed.







Appendix V - Hot Briquetted Iron (H.B.I.) Recommended Loading and Carriage Guidelines
1. Guidelines
The purpose of these Guidelines is to provide practical guidance to shipmasters and terminals to ensure that appropriate practices and precautions are adopted for the safe loading, carriage, and discharge of HBI.
The scope of these guidelines is to act as a core document from which charterers, ship and terminal operators will develop specific and detailed instructions for the areas of their responsibility describing how the standards of these Guidelines are to be applied and maintained.
To ensure compliance with Australian law these Guidelines should be read in conjunction with the BC Code and with Marine Orders Part 34.
2. Description
HBI is derived from Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) by a hot moulding process in which. briquettes of iron are formed under pressure at temperatures greater than 6500C. The density of the briquettes is consistently greater than 5 gms/cm3.
3. Regulations
The following Regulations are administered by AMSA and are applicable to all vessels engaged in international voyages to or from Australian ports and in Australian interstate voyages. Intrastate voyages within Australian states are the responsibility of the relevant State Marine Authority.
• Marine Orders. Part 34, Cargo & cargo handling - solid bulk cargoesIssue 3 of 1997, pursuant to S.425(1AA) of the Navigation Act 1912, and
• International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), supplement Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC Code)published by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) pursuant to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS).
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4. Pre-Loading requirements
Any vessel not fulfilling all of the pre-loading Guidelines of 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.5 is to be rejected for loading until able to conform. Guidelines of 4.4 are to be noted as complied with, or not complied with.
4.1 Cargo Holds - before commencement of loading
4.1.1 Holds are to be clean and dry with all previous cargo residues removed and cargo battens/timber removed;
4.1.2 Surrounding structure is to be water-tight, and adjacent tanks to cargo holds are to have been tested;
4.1.3 Bilge suction's have been tested and found efficient; and
4.1.4 Bilges, bilge wells or both must be clean, dry, and covered with gauze sufficient to prevent entry of HBI chips and briquettes.
4.2 Hatchcovers, Vents, and Accessories - before commencement of loading
4.2.1 Hatchcovers are watertight and have been tested;
4.2.2 Ventilators and hatches giving access to holds are watertight and have been tested.
4.3 Shippers Responsibilities - before commencement of loading
4.3.1 The ships master has been supplied by the shipper with details of the properties and characteristics of the cargo as required by Marine Orders, Part 34 and the provisions of the BC Code.
4.4 Ship Preparation - before commencement of loading
4.4.1 Holds have been washed down, preferably with fresh water, and be dry;
4.4.2 Decks should be washed down with fresh water in order to remove salt accumulation wherever likely to have contact with HBI fines or dust;
4.4.3 Sensitive electronic equipment, satellite communication and radar aerials are to be protected by dust-proof coverings;
4.4.4 The ship has cleaning and removal equipment in place for dealing with HBI dust and fines.
4.5 Ballast
4.5.1 Where possible, adjacent ballast tanks, other than double bottom tanks, should be kept empty.
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5. Loading and stowage
Guidelines relating to loading and stowage are to be noted by surveyors for the shipper as being compiled with or not compiled with.
5.1 Loading and Storage
5.1.1 Temperatures of HBI being loaded are to be observed and recorded by shippers, surveyors;
5.1.2 When loading, cargo should be evenly distributed and concentrations of fines in the stow minimised. Cargo should be loaded in layers, each of a nominal height of 2.0 metres deep, to assist fines distribution;
5.1.3 When each successive pour is complete, the cargo temperature is to be regularly checked and a record of surface temperatures kept for each hold;
5.1.4 Loading sequences are to be planned to maximise periods of rest between pours in each hold;
5.1.5 In fine weather, hatches are to be kept open between pour sequences to assist ventilation of holds;
5.1.6 If "hot spots" form in the stow, they are to be continuously monitored until stabilised and temperatures decline;
5.1.7 "Hot spots" which fail to stabilise are to be removed by grab when exceeding 750C;.
5.1.8 Loading of HBI is to be stopped and conveyors cleared on HBI whenever rain occurs and all hatches closed during any rainfall;
5.1.9 When resuming the loading of HBI after rain, conveyor belts are to be run clear of the hatch until free of water.
5.2 Terminal Practices - Prior to and during loading
5.2.1 HBI at the point of loading is not to exceed a temperature of 650C and its fines content is not to exceed 5% (under 4mm) by mass;
5.2.2 Open storage is acceptable prior to loading, however, HBI being loaded should be free of visible moisture;
5.2.3 Conveyor belts are to be dry and free of residues from cargoes handled previously.
6. Post Loading
Events following loading are to be noted by Shippers surveyors, as far is practicable:
6.0.1 The final form of stowage and temperatures for each hold is to be observed and recorded prior to the final closing of hatches;
6.0.2 Vessels carrying HBI should not proceed to sea until cargo temperatures are observed to be stable;
6.0.3 Heating which may occur in the cargo usually subsides, but surface temperatures should not be permitted to rise over 750C without intervention;
6.0.4 Hatches when closed for sea are to be watertight, and sealed to prevent water ingress.
7. Ocean Carriage
7.1 On the voyage
7.1.1 Accumulation of HBI dust, fines and chips are to removed after completion of loading and washdown and cleaning measures carried out as soon as practicable after departure from the port;
7.1.2 Hatches are to remain secured and water tightness maintained;
7.1.3 Entry of water into holds from any cause is to be prevented;
7.1.4 Bilges and bilge wells are to be regularly monitored to ensure that they are dry during the voyage and no free water exists in the holds. Should water be detected in any quantity, it must be removed as a matter of priority and the source of ingress located and sealed;
7.1.5 Surface ventilation of the HBI cargo is to be carried out in fine weather and dry conditions;
7.1.6 No smoking, naked lights, or hotwork is to be permitted on the main deck in the way of cargo vents.
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8. General
8.1 Personnel
Entry of personnel into s containing HBI should not be permitted until the master is satisfied that it is safe to do so after taking all safety precautions.
8.2 Measuring Equipment
All measuring equipment used in the loading, stowage, and monitoring of HBI cargo should be subject to a programme of checks and calibration.
8.3 Contingency Plans
8.3.1 When in port the terminal operator should ensure that contingency plans are in place to enable the prompt removal of any overheating HBI cargo. For this purpose grabs and hoisting equipment are to be available;
8.3.2 in ports handling HBI, a suitable area should be nominated for the reception, open air storage and passivating of HBI cargo removed from a ship;
8.3.3 For the vessel at sea, it is the responsibility of the master and owner to ensure that contingency plans are in place to redirect the vessel to the nearest port able to provide a means of promptly removing an overheated portion of HBI cargo. (See 6.0.3 above).
8.4 HBI Cargo Discharge
Precautions 8.4.1, 8.4.2, and 8.4.3 are to be carried out before discharge commences:
8.4.1 Sensitive electronic equipment, satellite communication and radar aerials are to be protected by dust-proof coverings;
8.4.2 Decks should be washed down with fresh water wherever likely to have contact with HBI fines or dust;
8.4.3 The ship has cleaning and removal equipment in place for dealing with HBI dust and fines.



Appendix IV - Materials Possessing Chemical Hazards
Section 9 (Extract from IMO Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes - 1990 Edition)
9.1 General
9.1.1. Solid materials transported in bulk which can present a hazard during transportation because of their chemical nature or properties are listed in Appendix B. Some of these materials are classified as dangerous goods in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code), others are materials which may cause hazards when transported in bulk.
9.1.2 It is important to note that this list of materials is not exhaustive. It is therefore essential to obtain currently valid information about the physical and chemical properties of the materials to be shipped in bulk prior to loading whenever such shipment is contemplated. When materials not listed in Appendix B are carried which fall within the classification of 9.2.2, the ship concerned should carry evidence of the approval of the competent authority for their transport.
9.1.3 Where consultation with the competent authority is required prior to bulk shipment of a material, it is equally important to consult authorities at the ports of Ioading and discharge, concerning requirements which may be in force.PACE
9.2 Classes of hazard
9.2.1 The classification of materials possessing chemical hazards and intended to be shipped in bulk under the requirements of this Code should be in accordance with 9.2.2 and 9.2.3.
9.2.2 Classification
Chapter VII of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, sets out the various classes of dangerous goods. For the purpose of the Code it has been found more convenient to designate these classes in accordance with the IMDG Code and to define in greater detail the materials which would fall within each class. Additionally, "Materials Hazardous only in Bulk" (MHB) are defined in this section.
9.2.2.1 Class 4.1: Flammable solids
These materials possess the properties of being easily ignited by external. sources such as sparks and flames and of being readily combustible or of being liable to cause or contribute to fire through friction.
9.2.2.2 Class 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
These materials possess the common property of being liable to heat spontaneously and to ignite.
9.2.2.3 Class 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
These materials possess the common property, when in contact with water, of evolving flammable gases. In some cases these gases are liable to spontaneous ignition.
9.2.2.4 Class 5.1: Oxidising substances (agents)
These materials although in themselves not necessarily combustible may, either by yielding oxygen or by similar processes, increase the risk and intensity of fire in other materials with which they come into contact.
9.2.2.5 Class 6.1: Poisonous (toxic) substances
These materials are liable either to cause death or serious injury or to harm human health if swallowed or inhaled, or by skin contact.
9.2.2.6 Class 6.2: Infectious substances
These materials contain viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or suspected to cause disease in animals or humans.
9.2.2.7 Class 7: Radioactive Materials
These materials spontaneously emit a significant radiation. Their specific, activity is greater than 70k Bq/kg (2nCi/g).
9.2.2.8 Class 8: Corrosives
These materials possess in their original state the common property of being able to more or less severely damage living tissue.
9.2.2.9 Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles
These materials present a hazard not covered by other classes.
9.2.3 Materials hazardous only in Bulk (MHB)
These materials, when carried in bulk, present sufficient hazards to require specific precautions. For example, materials which are liable to reduce the oxygen content in a cargo and those materials liable to self-heating or which become hazardous when wet, are regarded as belonging to this group (see also 3.2.3, 3.2.4 and 3.2.5). These materials may not be listed in the IMDG Code.
9.3 Stowage and segregation requirements
9.3.1 General requirements
9.3.1.1 The potential hazards of the materials listed in Appendix B and falling within the classification of 9.2.2 and 9.2.3 entail the need for segregation of incompatible materials.
9.3.1.2 In addition to general segregation as between whole classes of materials, there may be a need to segregate a particular material from others which would contribute to its hazard. In the case of segregation from combustible materials this should be understood not to include packaging material, ceiling or dunnage;the latter should in these circumstances be kept to a minimum.
9.3.1.3 For the purpose of segregating incompatible materials, the words "hold" and "compartment" are deemed to mean a cargo enclosed by steel bulkheads or shell plating, and by steel decks. The boundaries of such a should be resistant to fire and liquid.
9.3.1.4 When two or more different incompatible materials are to be transported in bulk, the segregation between them should be at least equivalent to that described under "separated from" (see 9.3.4).
9.3.1 5 Where different grades of a material are transported in bulk in the same cargo , the most stringent segregation provisions applicable to any of the different grades should apply to all of them.
9.3.1.6 When materials in bulk and dangerous goods in packaged form are to be transported, the segregation between them should be at least equivalent to that described in 9.3.3.
9.3.1.7 Incompatible materials should not be handled simultaneously. In particular, contamination of foodstuffs should be avoided.
Upon completion of loading one such material, the hatch covers of every cargo containing it should be closed and the decks cleaned of residue before loading of other materials is commenced. When discharging, the same procedures should be followed.
9.3.1.8 To avoid contamination, a material which is indicated as toxic should be stowed "separated from" all foodstuffs (see 9.3.4).
9.3.1.9 Materials which may evolve toxic gases in sufficient quantities to affect health should not be stowed in those s from where such gases maypenetrate into living quarters, work areas, or ventilation systems.
9.3.1.10 Materials which present corrosive hazards of such intensity as to affect either human tissue or the ship's structure should only be loaded after adequate precautions and protecting measures have been taken.
9.3.1.11 After discharge of materials for which toxicity is indicated, s used for its transport should be inspected for contamination. A which hasbeen contaminated should be properly cleaned and examined before being used for other cargoes, especially foodstuffs.
9.3.1.12 After discharge of materials, a close inspection should be made for any residue which should be removed before the ship is presented for other cargo; such an inspection is particularly important when materials having corrosive properties have been transported.
9.3.2 Special requirements
9.3.2.1 Materials of classes 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3
9.3.2.1.1 Materials of these classes should be kept as cool and as dry as reasonably practicable and should be stowed clear of all sources of heat or ignition.
9.3.2.1.2 Electrical fittings and cables should be in good condition and properly safeguarded against short circuits and sparking. Where a bulkhead is required to be suitable for segregation purposes, cable and conduit penetrations of the decks and bulkheads should be sealed against the passage of gas and vapour.
9.3.2.1.3 Materials liable to give off vapours or gases which can form an explosive mixture with air should be stowed in a mechanically ventilated .
9.3.2.1.4 Prohibition of smoking in dangerous areas should be enforced, and clearly legible " NO SMOKING " signs should be displayed.
9.3.2.2 Materials of class 5.1
9.3.2.2.1 Materials of this class should be kept as cool and as dry as reasonably practicable and should be stowed clear of all sources of heat or ignition. They should also be stowed "separated from" other combustible materials.
9.3.2.2.2 Before loading materials of this class, particular attention should be paid to the cleaning of the cargo s into which they will be loaded. As far as reasonably practicable, non-combustible securing and protecting materials and only a minimum of dry wooden dunnage should be used.
9.3.2.2.3 Precautions should be taken to avoid the penetration of oxidising materials into other cargo s, bilge wells, etc.
9.3.2.3 Materials of class 7.
9.3.2.3.1 Cargo s used for the transport of Low Specific Activity Materials (LSA-1) and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO-1) should not be used forother cargoes until decontaminated by a qualified person such that the non-fixed contamination on any surface when averaged over an area of 300 square centimeters does not exceed the following levels:
4Bq/cm2 (104uCi/cm2)
for beta and gamma emitters and the low toxicity alpha emitters natural uranium, natural thorium, uranium -235 or uranium 238, thorium - 232, thorium-228 and thorium-230 when contained in ores, physical or chemical concentrates, radionuclides with a half-life of less than 10 days; and
0.4Bq/cm2(10-5uCi/cm2)
for all other alpha emitters.
9.3.2.4 Materials of class 8 or materials having similar properties.
9.3.2.4.1 These materials should be kept as dry as reasonably practicable.
9.3.2.4.2 Before loading these materials, attention should be paid to the cleaning of the cargo s into which they will be loaded and in particular whether these s are dry.
9.3.2.4.3 Penetration of these materials into other cargo s, bilge wells, and between the ceiling boards should be prevented.
9.3.2.4.4 Particular attention should be paid tothe cleaning of the cargo s after unloading, as residues of these cargoes may be highly corrosive to the ship's structure. Hosing down of the cargo s followed by careful drying is preferred.
9.3.3 Segregation between bulk materials possessing chemical hazards; and dangerous goods in packaged form
Unless otherwise required in this section or in the individual entries in Appendix B, segregation between bulk materials and dangerous goods in packaged form should be in accordance with the following table.

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